Woher kommen zu viele rote blutkörperchen

The story of how life created on earth keeps unfolding, revealing neu clues around how our planet advanced from gift barren and hostile to life, wrapped bei harmful gases, to die lush und diverse location we understand today. Die problem verbunden with the formation of the zuerst cellular organisms – or die organic compounds native which castle are constructed – ist that these processes took ar over four billion years ago und much des the evidence has ceased zu exist. As Nobel Laureate george Smoot mentioned throughout his lecture in Lindau in 2008, this area von research is not unequal forensic science, where evidence ist collected nur like weist a crime scene. Author peter Forbes composed that the origin von life “could once be safely consigned kommen sie wistful armchair musing – we’ll never recognize (...)”. Nevertheless, die topic has not ceased zu fascinate noten of scientists, among them Nobel Laureates. Also though Nobel Prizes are not given weil das abiogenesis or evolution biology, plenty of laureates oase shifted their study interests kommen sie this amazing field after winning die Nobel Prize in another discipline. Harold Urey, that won die Nobel Prize bei Chemistry an 1934 “for ns discovery of heavy hydrogen”, dedicated many year to ns early geochemistry von planets and meteorites; his lectures at ns Lindau Meetings an the 1960s and 1970s focused on die chemical evidence von the origin of the solar system. Christian de Duve ist probably equally famous for his discovery von the moving organelles lysosomes and peroxisomes, zum which that received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974, as zum his many publications on die rise of life.

Du schaust: Woher kommen zu viele rote blutkörperchen

Recent developments bei molecular biology, genomics und biochemistry schutz added even more clues to theories of abiogenesis. Außerdem Duve wrote an 1995: “The history of life top top earth zu sein written in the cells and molecules of existing organisms. Thanks to the advances des cell biology, biochemistry and molecular biology, researchers are becoming increasingly adept at reading the text.” There ist much ongoing dispute as kommen sie how probable the bildete of life was. If we went back in time, would ns same processes occur? Or would planet be colonised über decidedly different organisms (or none at all)? the origin des life was a singular event that führen zu to a sequence des events – one offshoot comes from one type of modell formation, rather leading kommen sie evolutionary tot ends. During ns 1994 Lindau Nobel Laureate conference dedicated kommen sie Physics, the physicist Murray Gell-Mann gift a theory that could be echoed von evolutionary biologists as well as chemists, which proclaimed that complexity arises native simplicity, or from bei initial order, and is then subject kommen sie chance.

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Murray Gell-Mann stating that complexity arises from simplicity, or from bei initial order, and is then subject zu chance(00:01:46 - 00:02:54)

The big Bang emerged 13.7 billion years ago, developing the zuerst elements – hydrogen and helium. As john Mather explained an his lecture an 2010, a small piece von the primordial inhaltsstoff started zu expand very quickly, hinweisen a price that was faster than the speed of light. Yet, our regional universe is not expanding und this can be explained von the inhomogeneity of some parts of the early on universe; some were denser than others, which led to an uneven distribution des matter, allowing weil das the bildete of die solar system approximately 4.5 billion year ago. Atom reactions ensuing inside stern initiated the bildete of chemical elements, for this reason all matter today ist the recycled inhaltsstoff left end from those early stars.

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I would like to tell you as a thespian die entire history of the world from die beginning zu end,I have only half an hour deswegen it wollen be brief.So thank you zum inviting me zu come und telling you this exceptional story.Astronomers oase actually made tremendous progression on thisand us are still guessing around many des the dinge I"m going to tell you.Many of the sachen are probably not true, but you will find the end later, together we all will, as this comes zu be discussed.So astronomers are now working top top this question von how did we get here.Just together Jack and Ada were talking about, us are an extremely interested in the origins des life.So astronomers have the easy part, ich think, we oase the challenge of describing die physical universethat leader to ns conditions wherein life can exist below on the planet earth.We schutz a story about the Big Bang, we oase a story about how galaxies room made from die primordial material.How galaxies readjust with time, how stern are made in ~ galaxies, exactly how planets kann sein be made about stars.And eventually, how ns conditions zum life may come to exist here and perhaps countless other places.So we are as astronomers functioning on die physical universe part und then we say, okay, biologists, you have the following step.So zuerst I desire to nur you about ns expanding universe.Back in 1929 this chart was made von Edwin Hubble.He plots right here each dot as a galaxy.A galaxy as freundin know zu sein 100 billion stern orbiting approximately each other.On the scorseses axis ist his approximated distance, on the vertical axis zu sein the speed that that measured from die Doppler shift.So ns immediate conclusion indigenous this chart bei 1929 is that die universe is expanding.The most far-off galaxies space going far from us punkt speeds about proportional to ns distance,and that means that you kann calculate ns approximate age von the universe über dividing the distance über the speed.So in those job he had actually wrong estimates weil das the distance, so we had actually a an extremely confusing picture zum a time,and the universe appeared to be younger than the oldest objects an it.So that mistake took number of decades kommen sie correct, but hinweisen any rate it was corrected.Now we oase this story i beg your pardon we call Hubble’s law, the not nur a theory, it´s ns law.And, by the way, deshalb in 1929 it was discovered, that the worldwide economy can collapse.So it’s a good thing to remember the that’s ns year we also discovered that ns entire universe could expand.In 1929 this was a very big surprise.I will nur you pictures von some of the people who thought around this.In ns middle over there you seen Albert Einstein, und he zu sein the man who called usthat space and time are not absolute however are blended together in order to oase special relativity.Special relativity zu sein the set of formulae the explainshow it zu sein possible that the speed von light would certainly be a constant regardless of whether us are moving or not.So it turns out that’s ns unique solution kommen sie that details problem.In 1916 he generalised this theory kommen sie include ns forces von gravityand he said that space and time room curved über the action des gravitation.And this then gave us zum the zuerst time die ability kommen sie calculate ns force von gravity across bei infinite universe,because his equations space differential equations and not just what Isaac Newton had provided us.When Isaac Newton thought about this problem of gravitation across ns universe, ns result was infinities.So the was not possible to come to a definite conclusion, yet Isaac Newton already was aware the there was a problem.In 1929 this was ausblüten a surprise.Now i want to tell sie about die work of the two civilization here on die left,Alexander Friedmann an 1922 applied Einstein’s equations, and he stated “I think die universe is expanding”,and he offered us die right equations zum how zu describe it.In 1925 the died, deswegen he didn’t get to see that he was correct.In 1927 george Lemaître here, who is shown next to Einstein, wearing his Belgium priest´s collar,who was a mathematician und a Belgian priest, derived the same equations and said “I contact this the regel atom”.And in both situations Einstein stated this zu sein mathematically correct but physics zu sein abominable.So he was quite sure, Einstein was, that die universe could not possibly be expanding.How would he know? well he request his friends and the friends said “everyone knows the universe ist not expanding”.So Einstein had actually included an his equations a constant of integration, i beg your pardon we now call ns Lambda constant,and his idea was that the Lambda constant was a force des repulsion,which would certainly balance die force von contraction the gravitation would certainly produce.So Einstein was greatly surprised in 1929 kommen sie find that his constant was not needed an the expanding universe,and the had zu apologise zum being rude, as well as weil das making a great mistake, which he supposedly called his best blunder.So that’s bei the at an early stage part von the 20th century.In die middle des the 20th century george Gamow, who ist shown here, was a Ukrainian physicistwho come to ns United States kommen sie work.After the war was over and people know around nuclear reactions much more,they to be able zu calculate die processes the should schutz occurred an the at an early stage universe.So they claimed “what if we calculate die properties des the huge Bang?”.So they were able kommen sie sayand die lifetime of the neutron was known”,so it was realised that die primordial zutat should make hydrogen und helium in the first few minutes.And climate after that ns neutrons would certainly be gone,so ns cosmic abundance of hydrogen und helium was set in the zuerst few minute of the expanding universe.He deshalb said ns universe must be filled v radiation, cosmic microwave radiation,which would schutz a temperature von a couple of degrees, about five degrees above absolute zero.And this was not possible to measure at that time.It would have been a very difficult measurement.Now we know that it´s possible for a figured out high institution student zu measure that with tools from tv receivers.In 1948, wie they calculated these things, the was notfall possible.They tried rather hard but it was not measured, till it was discovered in 1965 by two des the Nobel compensation winners,who actually are here today, Arnold Penzias and Bob Wilson,and so the discovery of this cosmic radiation was a incredible surprise together it transforms out,even despite some civilization had currently been thinking about it years before.I’ll point out the this radiation ist incredibly bright, although that difficult for us kommen sie measurein the order von magnitude it´s really bright and in fact if freundin tune your tv receiver bolzen channels,about 1% of the eye flakes you see on a TV screen kommen sie from the cosmos, kommen sie from die Big Bang radiation itself.So if freundin knew what freundin were looking punkt you"d speak “aha now i understand ns Big Bang!”.I schutz two other photos here.On ns bottom on the left room Alpher and Herman.They were functioning with george Gamow und they were the ones who actually did these calculations in 1948.They are zeigen here as they appeared wie they came to die launch von their satellitewhich make a an ext precise measurement and earned the Nobel prize.On ns right hand side we schutz Sunyaev and Peebles, who room two modern-day theorists.This ist a reminder that no theorist has earned a prize yet zum the large Bang, but many observers have now.I want zu point the end that a consequence von Hubble’s Law, the straight heat on his graph,is the there zu sein no measurable center or edge of the universe.You can say “well, ich see all die galaxies are going away from us right here on earth, doesn’t that average that we space at the centre?”.And the conclusion of the calculation is here,each von these astronomers would conclude that he or she ist at ns centre von the universe.Therefore there is no centre that we kann sein determine.Astronomers have of course been very busy looking for a center or in edge for many generations und we oase not uncovered one.There is of kurse a helpful edge.You cannot seen past the time that we’ve to be allotted, if we have existed here zum 13.7 billion years,that method you tun können see 13.7 billion light years bei every direction and that’s as much as we tun können see,because we space looking zurück towards the beginning by looking weist most far-off things.We look back in time as we look punkt distant objects.So ns practical reality is, there ist a klein part of the cosmos we can see,and there zu sein probably much more universe beyond that that we cannot see, due to the fact that we have not existed lang enough.So to wave my arms really vigorously we imagine there was some primordial material.Possibly infinite an extent, maybe not.Some klein volume of it started expanding über some strange und bizarre quantum mechanically process.One des the great challenges des modern physics ist to understand this frühen zeitpunkt period of timewhen we believe that quantum mechanics und gravitation should be linked into some kind of quantum heaviness theory.And we execute not have yet a successful theory.Many people are still working top top it.At any type of rate not only go material anfang flowing far from other material an the expansionbut we foto that room itself has actually been expanding.Now space zu sein not necessarily a substance us do notfall know what space or time in reality are for themselves,but perhaps when we obtain a theory von quantum gravity, then us will oase a much better idea.At any type of rate this early on universe started expanding significantly rapidly.It doubled in size about a hundreds times in a very, very tiny instant of time and kicked off die expanding universe von today.Now us say “well, us look around und we perform not lakers our neighborhood universe expanding”.The solar system is not expanding, the galaxy zu sein not expanding, adjacent galaxies are not all von them walk away.So what ist it that has made possible the non-expansion of our neighborhood part? How can we exist if the whole universe zu sein expanding?So ns idea ist that some parts von the early on universe were more dense than others,and they would have enough me attraction v their own gravitational forces zu combat die expansion rate.And so this zu sein the story, the anfangsverdacht material had zu be slightly inhomogeneous, some parts denser 보다 others,so that the gravitation can stop ns expansion in those volumes and fall back and make stars und galaxies.Of kurse after a star can be born, climate we can have ns nuclear reactions within this star that produce ns other elements.I told you earlier, the we had only hydrogen and helium from die Big Bang, deshalb where did the chemical elements des life kommen sie from?They come from stern that have, a ahead generation of stars that have burned your nuclear materialand exploded und distributed ns chemical elements zurück into space.So us ourselves are already recycled inhaltsstoff from inside stars.If freundin look in the mirror in the morning, und you lakers the chemistry elements of life, you oase to remember,they were notfall there an the big Bang.They were formed currently inside stars.So you kann sein be doing your cosmology every morning wie man you room doing her cosmetics.So I schutz a quick chart kommen sie summarise ns early history von the universe,we have a picture von the huge Bang as measured v microwaves.We have in idea that galaxies are formed über small objects merging with each other to form large ones.Just as small streams circulation together to form large rivers.We have a picture bei the lower left von our nearest huge neighbour galaxy, die Andromeda nebula,which you kann sein see through binoculars fairly nicely.It’s around as big as the full moon but not nearly together bright.So in the beginning we have a story which was –the large Bang über the way was renamed the "Horrendous an are Kablooie" by our American cartoonist von Calvin und Hobbes.So i like the name actually much better than die “Big Bang”, due to the fact that it suggests that there ist something strangethat happens about room itself.So it´s compatible with die idea that there’s in inflation und space itself may be expanding.Since us don’t know what an are is, it is a little bit tricky, but it’s a different point des perspective.So ns original zutat gave us die chemical elements von hydrogen und helium,it started off ns universe with die expansion, it offered us a dark matter, which is important.We would notfall exist there is no dark matter.And that all happened 13.75 billion years earlier with a really small error bar.We room now bei the era of precision cosmology.So i mentioned previously that ns helium nuclei, the were made an the zuerst few minutes,then the universe expanded und cooled wie man it was about 389.000 year old,the electron found ns atomic nuclei and the primordial gases material became neutral.Before that it was opaque as a plasma, und after the it was neutral,and ns photons of the background radiation could propagate zu us.The universe came to be transparent.So climate hypothetical occasions on ns chart, the erste generation des stars, us imagine they were very different from ns sun,and viel more massive, and that they would burn out an extremely promptly in a few million years.Then galaxies to be formed und then at die end, here ich point out,that around 5 billion years ago die universe began to accelerate again and to go faster und faster.This ist a tremendous surprise des the tonnage decade of astronomy,and the tells us a wenig bit around what may happen punkt the end of the universe.We see now that die universe zu sein accelerating und going faster and faster, that method that in a number des billions von years,the far-off galaxies wollen be deshalb far away the most von them will be invisible kommen sie us.Their velocities des recession möchte continue kommen sie increase and bei 100 billion year or deshalb almost all of them möchte be invisible.Not only will the stern go out, but the galaxies wollen be too far away zum us kommen sie see.So we schutz a few billion years prior to we have to move.This graph illustrates an extremely briefly why we talk deshalb much about ns microwave lift radiation.It zu sein the strong remnant des the primordial material, it ist a zutat that we can measure really precisely in every direction,and at ns right hand side von the picture is one des the space probes that ist out there right now measuring the radiation.And the properties von this microwave radiation rotate out zu be incredibly informative.I don’t schutz time to tell you details.I do want to zeigen you one picture des the zuerst satellite that was built to measure this radiation:this was the cosmic background explorer or COBE Satellite.At least weil das me die idea came from the failure von my thesis project,which was in attempt to measure ns cosmic background radiation with a balloon payload.The balloon payload failed weil das a number von reasons, and I concluded that this topic was viel too difficult,I would leave die subject.But a few months letztere NASA solicited proposals for satellite missions, und I said zu my advisorWe had actually no idea how difficult that job would be, but here the is, it was launched fifteen years later.And right here it zu sein as in artist would see it an space.It carried instruments kommen sie measure the microwave radiation and to look weil das the light des the erste galaxies.So I’ll show you nur a few sachen from it.Here zu sein the spectrum of the microwave radiation.The frequency of the waves, the cycles von centimetre on scorses axis, brightness in the upright direction.You see all the little boxes are exactly on die curve as it need to be if die Big Bang theory zu sein correct.So we received a stehen ovation wie man we proved this to die astronomical society.I was a little surprised, because ich knew this was the right answer.The astronomers were assembled.They had been fairly worried that ns Big Bang theory can not oase been correct.So this was a significant relief for people.Now this little picture is in all the buchstabe books.Our second discovery was this set von maps des the sky, die one kommen sie focus on is the Ellipse at die bottom von the picture.This is a map after taking out all von the local effects that we know und the blobs, ns objects on ns map,are primordial temperature variations.The small variations of the temperature of the microwave radiation native place kommen sie place.As it transforms out the cold regions on this map are die ones which are an ext dense in the beforehand universe,and those are the volumes which are going zu develop right into galaxies und clusters von galaxies.And die bright regions, die pink persons are die ones which room going kommen sie turn out zu be empty,where the gravitation wollen pull the inhaltsstoff away.Stephen Hawking witnessed this picture.He said it was die most important scientific discovery of the century if notfall of all time.I was appreciative of his great words however of kurse I think there oase been part other discoveries as well.So on ns other hand, if those blobs were not there, we would notfall exist, so maybe it´s important.Years schutz passed, we have now a an excellent deal des activity an characterising the statistics of those objects,that you see bei those maps.And this zu sein a theoretical curve which has actually been used und interpretedto determine plenty of cosmological parameters under to the percent level des accuracy.I don’t have time kommen sie explain ns details, but ich just wanted kommen sie showthat there’s a tremendous amount that can be learned from die shapes of those objects on die microwave map.Now time ist short, deshalb I will not actually give freundin all the details of anything rather either.This ist a picture of three people who uncovered that die universe zu sein accelerating,and us named ns cause von this acceleration Dark Energy.Now that way that we carry out not oase any idea what it is.So an a few years maybe somebody will have the exactly description, but right now it´s only a name.There room a few mysteries remaining zum us, astronomers would say we understand that there zu sein only matter in the universe.There room no anti-matter galaxies.Particle physicists want to know why this zu sein true.I told you there ist dark matt out there, there´s a gewächs more des it 보다 there room atoms und molecules.The question des what zu sein the dark energy, what zu sein it beyond, just a name? anyone wants zu know native astronomers,is Einstein right about relativity? and of course we are busy trial and error it but we are not there yet.And us would certainly like zu answer the question des our own history.How did die earth kommen sie to exist und how did all those things kommen sie to be the we can live here?Are we the only life things an the universe? zu sein it possible, des course, bei the far possibility,that you could interact with other living things und of course for our own background what would take place next?So astronomers are now pursuing ns infrared bereichen of observations in space.I will nur you die project I"m currently working on.We would choose very much to be able zu study infrared radiation from external space.And it’s a very difficult project since infrared walk not kommen sie well through die earths atmosphere,and since telescopes emit infrared radiation von their own.So on die other hand, it´s amazing because of that same variable objects at room temperature emit infrared radiation.Your body ist emitting about 500 watts von infrared radiation, together each of us space sitting here in the room.So the telescope us are at this time building ist called the james Webb an are Telescope and named after ~ the einer at NASA,who hold us zu go to die moon, and did that successfully.This telescope ist being jetzt built über a partnership through a European und Canadian space agencies through my agency, NASA,in ns United States.We are well along bei the process von building it, which was started fifteen years ago.This telescope the you seen here does notfall look like in ordinary telescope.It looks more choose a solar energy concentrator.Actually think of it together a galaxy energy concentrator, bringing light from ns distant universeto concentrate und be focused by the giant hexagonal parabolic mirror down right into the instrument package.The huge blue system that you see underneath ist a umbrella, a sunlight shield kommen sie protect ns telescope from ns sun und the earth,and enable it zu become cold.The telescope wollen operate at a temperature des about 40° Kelvin and it is deshalb much larger than a rocket.You seen that it ist a structure, not nur a tube, deshalb I don’t oase the video zum youbut that actually möchte unfold after launch from the Ariane 5 rocket.And we are hoping kommen sie launch it in 2014 with luck.So I’ll nur you nur a few von the scientific topics that we hope to address with it.I wanted to assure freundin that we are discovering how to focus ns telescope.the Hubble an are Telescope, as sie all know, was imperfect wie it was launched and it was repaired von astronauts.Our telescope zu sein going kommen sie be viel farther away, a million miles away from ns earth und it can not be fixed.So we schutz to acquire it appropriate the first time, so we are practicing.We oase this small model und then we wollen take ns telescope that we will fliegen to this giant prüfen chamber in Houston, Texas,where die Apollo astronauts actually want kommen sie practice being in a vacuum.A few sachen to illustrate about our scientific program.One von the remarkable discoveries zu sein that together Einstein told united state it would certainly happen, gravitation kann sein bend light.So you can barely see in the upper appropriate corner des the bild that there ist a pink arcand die pink arc is actually the bild of a really distant galaxy that has been magnified and distortedby ns gravitational field von these other galaxies that sie see bei the picture.So Einstein’s gravitation zu sein helping us seen even furthermore into die distant universe.We have the capability of understanding exactly how galaxies to be formed, not über watching them carry out this, but über simulating them.So an the lower right we seen a computer simulation, that weil das a augenblicke matches the gemälde of echt galaxiesThey fully change their appearance as they merge together.By ns way ns Andromeda nebula is coming towards us und it zu sein going to do that to our galaxy in about 5 exchange rate years.We have these projects an front von us.We will watch stern explode occasionally.This is in image, on the right is in image von a star that will explode bei the next few hundred thousands years rather nearby zu us.On ns left yes sir a concept des how it may work.Anyway we oase seen something prefer this happened.Well, this zu sein a rarely case but probably like ns earliest stars in the world as castle explode.Once an a when a stern blows up and has a jet of inhaltsstoff that comes out und is aimed hinweisen us.This is a jet of inhaltsstoff moving at nearly ns speed von light, und once an a while, when it ist aimed hinweisen us,we receive a burst des gamma radiation the lasts for about two seconds.And just bei the tonnage few years it was recognised that these are the sources.These are stars exploding at ns edge of the universe und just happening zu be aimed punkt us we tun können get these gamma rays.So all des these jene are mysteries we will pursue kommen sie try kommen sie understand.Another closer target weil das us is the Eagle nebula.If we might lower ns lights a little bit this would certainly really aid with this pictures.But bei any way this ist a very famous foto from die Hubble an are Telescope, the shows,where you see these beautiful bildern of a stern forming region, stars oase been born within these dark clouds von material.And the Hubble Telescope even cannot lakers inside because die dark clouds des dust space opaque.Now if you can use infrared light, you tun können see through the staubig material insideand lakers where stern are being born this days.So we oase a chance to learn viel more about the gebildet of stern like ns sun,as us look weist clouds adjacent where it zu sein currently happening.It was mentioned earlier von Jack that we are jetzt able to take pictures von planets roughly other stars,and we have a bild here the illustrates this.We schutz hundreds des targets eventually, perhaps thousands, und the possibility, which ich will jetzt illustrate bei the following chart,that we tun können learn about ns chemistry von the atmospheres of those planets.The movie reflects a planet going bei front des a distant star,and freundin should imagine that a little bit von the starlight ist going through the atmosphere des that planeton that is way to our telescope.That means we can do spectroscopy, we kann determine die chemical composition von the atmosphere of another planet von doing this.And we execute not oase to have a telescope that provides a separate bild of this planet,we can have a telescope that just watches ns change von light as the planet intercepts some starlight.So once an a when even ns opposite occurs as well, the planet möchte be obscured über this star.And both des these schutz already been done v telescopes in space, v our neu telescope we hope zu do better.It is not probable the our telescope will be able to do this for in earth-like planet approximately a sun-like star,but zum a future generation des observatory that would be constructed just weil das this purpose.We should be able to learn even if it is a planet around another star has an atmosphere like ns earth with oxygen,and that would certainly be a clue that there’s life.So there’s a wenig paperback publication which has been published, the summarises or story, and it´s obtainable from Amazon.com.And of course there room plenty des websites the convey die general info of our story.So anyway, thank freundin very much weil das hearing die story des the universe und appreciating die mysteries that room still bei front von us.Applause.