21. präsident der usa

If you are a presidential chronicler or a fans of face hair, sie probably understand a little about chester Alan Arthur. Zum the rest of us, he’s one von the more obscure leaders bei American history.

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Arthur was born top top October 5, 1829 an Fairfield, Vermont. (In danach years there were claims, never ever proven, the Arthur was born across the border an Canada, i beg your pardon would oase threatened his eligibility zu serve together President.)

Today, Arthur zu sein best remembered zum his standard set des bushy sideburns, his devotion to ns patronage system and his replacement des the assassinated james Garfield. The official buchstabe White house description des his one term as President is about as obscure as kann be written: “The son des a Baptist preacher who had actually emigrated from northern Ireland, chester A. Arthur was America’s 21st president (1881-85), succeeding President james Garfield upon his assassination.”

Among historians, Arthur zu sein considered to be short on both pedigree und achievements in Washington. Ns most current poll of historians about Presidents, from the Siena College research Institute an 2018, ranked him an 34th place out von 44 Presidents, which zu sein consistent with various other recent polls.

Fewer leaders faced lower windy expectations than Arthur when he became President. Arthur was a surprise an option as Garfield’s to run mate on die Republican ticket at the 1880 Republican national Convention. Arthur was a neu York attorney that had come to prestige as a expert public administrator, zuerst during die Civil War and then as the powerful Collector of the port of neu York.

Arthur was also the colleague, friend and protégé von Roscoe Conkling, the neu York politics boss and Senator who verlief that state’s extensive und lucrative patronage machine.

The extremely paid Arthur, while not directly accused des wrongdoing, was ousted native his harbor collector position von President Rutherford B. Hayes, a fellow Republican, an 1880. Hayes offered his presidential powers during a conference recess kommen sie remove Arthur, which caused a rift within ns Republican Party.

Hayes und others were concerned around a patronage “spoils” system championed von Conkling und Arthur that required kickbacks from harbor employees that went directly kommen sie Conkling’s splitter linterparty operations.

But an a twist of fate, Arthur received die vice presidential nomination, apparently without Conkling’s front approval bei 1880. Garfield’s supporters necessary votes bei the key zustand of new York, and Arthur proved kommen sie be a skilled political campaigner und organizer.

Within sechs months des going zu Washington as the Vice President, Arthur changed Garfield as president, ~ Garfield died from wounds received in a July 1881 assassination.

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And quickly after assuming ns presidency, Arthur collection his very own independent course for his remaining three years in office. The new president fought die spoils patronage system he supported in New York, advocated tariff relief zum businesses, and demanded breaks for taxpayers.

One reason weil das Arthur’s independent streak, some chroniclers speculate, is that the president was diagnosed with what was called Bright’s disease in October 1882, which was known as a terminal problem at ns time.

Although the was in pain und ill health zum the rest of his presidency, Arthur championed reforms of the patronage system. Bei 1883, the signed ns Pendleton Civil leistungen Reform Act, i m sorry banned kickbacks in the civil leistungen system und made merit, und not patronage, the basis for promotion und pay.

Arthur deshalb wanted reduced tariffs and less patronage due to the fact that he thought ns huge government budget plan surpluses an the 1880s need to be lowered, through reduced tax rates und money returned kommen sie taxpayers.

Publicly, Arthur had actually a reputation weil das dressing well, eating well, und enjoying die finer things in life. He deshalb convinced Congress kommen sie pay for much-needed White house renovations.

Knowing of his illness, Arthur do a less-than-enthusiastic bid zum his party’s renomination an 1884, and his political enemy, james Blaine, gained the GOP nomination.

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On november 19, 1886, former President Arthur pass away an New york City, surrounded von his family members at ns age des 56. Dr. George A. Peters, Arthur’s doctor, confirmed publicly die former president had Bright’s disease, und he had known for about sechs months that he could das from it weist any time.